Karl Popper: “Falsacionismo” / “Principio de Falsabilidad”.-

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Falsehood or Principle of Falsehood is an epistemological current founded by the Austrian philosopher Karl Popper.

For Popper, finding a theory means trying to refute it by a counterexample. If it is not possible to refute it, this theory is corroborated, and can be accepted provisionally, but never verified. Within the methodological falsificationism, one can differentiate the initial naive falsificationism of Popper and the sophisticated falsificationism of the late work of Popper and the methodology of the research programs of Imre Lakatos.

The problem of induction arises from the fact that we can never say anything universal from the particular data that experience offers us. By many millions of black crows we see we can never say that “all crows are black.” Instead if we find a single raven that is not black, if we can say “Not all crows are black.” For that reason Popper introduces falsificationism as a criterion of scientific demarcation.

Popper actually rejects verificationism as a method of validation of theories. Popper’s central thesis is that there can be no ultimate scientific statements, that is, they can not be contrasted or refuted from experience. Experience remains the distinctive method that characterizes empirical science and distinguishes it from other theoretical systems.

For Popper scientific rationality does not require unquestionable starting points, because there are none. The matter is a matter of method. Although science is inductive, in the first instance, the most important aspect is the deductive part. Science is characterized by being rational, and rationality resides in the process by which we submit to criticism and replace our beliefs. Facing the problem of induction Popper proposes a series of methodological rules that allow us to decide when to reject a hypothesis.

Popper proposes a scientific method of conjecture by which the observable consequences are deduced and put to the test. If the consequence fails, the hypothesis is refuted and must be rejected. Otherwise, if everything is checked, the process is repeated considering other deductible consequences. When a hypothesis has survived various attempts at refutation, it is said to be corroborated, but this does not allow us to affirm that it has been definitively confirmed, but only provisionally, by empirical evidence.

For falsificationists the scientist is an artist in that he must boldly propose a theory that will then be subjected to rigorous experiments and observations. The advance in science is to falsify successive theories so, knowing what is not, to be able to get closer and closer to what is.

The hypotheses proposed by the falsificationists must be falsifiable. This means that they must be susceptible of being falsified. To meet this condition, the hypotheses should be as general as possible and as clear and precise as possible. A non-falsifiable hypothesis would be “Tomorrow may rain”, since in no case can it be falsified.

A falsifiable hypothesis would be “the planet Mercury rotates in an orbit”. A more general hypothesis and therefore more falsifiable would be “all the planets revolve in an orbit”. And a more precise and therefore more falsifiable hypothesis would be “all the planets revolve in an elliptical orbit.”

The falsificationists, who rely on the hypothetical deductive method, prefer the hypotheses or theories that are more falsifiable, that is to say, more likely to be proved false, until they have already been falsified. Thus science would progress on the basis of trial and error.-

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Karl Popper: “Falsacionismo” / “Principio de Falsabilidad”:

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Karl Raimund Popper ( 1902 / 1994 ).-
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El Falsacionismo o Principio de Falsabilidad es una corriente epistemológica fundada por el filósofo austríaco Karl Popper.

Para Popper, constatar una teoría significa intentar refutarla mediante un contraejemplo. Si no es posible refutarla, dicha teoría queda corroborada, pudiendo ser aceptada provisionalmente, pero nunca verificada. Dentro del falsacionismo metodológico, se pueden diferenciar el falsacionismo ingenuo inicial de Popper y el falsacionismo sofisticado de la obra tardía de Popper y la metodología de los programas de investigación de Imre Lakatos.

El problema de la inducción nace del hecho de que nunca podremos afirmar algo universal a partir de los datos particulares que nos ofrece la experiencia. Por muchos millones de cuervos negros que veamos nunca podremos afirmar que “todos los cuervos son negros”. En cambio si encontramos un solo cuervo que no sea negro, si podremos afirmar “No todos los cuervos son negros”. Por esa razón Popper introduce como criterio de…

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Greek Mythology: “Selene, Goddess of the Moon” / Poetry: “Selene Awakens”, by Christy Birmingham.-

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►Greek Mythology: “Selene, Goddess of the Moon”:

►Poetry: “Selene Awakens”, by Christy Birmingham:

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selene7 “Luna” by Evelyn De Morgan (1885).

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Selene is the Greek Goddess of the Moon. She is the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia.

Besides, Selene is sister of the Sun-God Helios, and Eos, Goddess of the Dawn.

In classical times, Selene was often identified with Artemis, much as her brother, Helios, was identified withApollo.

Just as Helios, from his identification with Apollo, is called Phoebus (“bright”), Selene, from her identification with Artemis, is also commonly referred to by the epithet Phoebe (feminine from the name is of Greek origin, it is likely connected to the word selas (σέλας), meaning “light”.

Both Selene and Artemis were also associated with Hecate, and all three were regarded as Lunar Goddesses, although only Selene was regarded as the personification…

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►Philosophy: “Plato´s Cave and Fifteen Million Merits” (Black Mirror).-

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►Philosophy: “Plato´s Cave and Fifteen Million Merits” (Black Mirror):

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Hello readers! This is a post in collaboration with Christy Birmingham, from Poetic Parfait and When Women Inspire. You might wonder how the idea of writing this post came up. Well, basically, I had begun watching Season Three of Black Mirror, which was recently released on Netflix. I told Christy how much I liked it, and, from that moment, we started chatting about the series. Soon after, Christy watched “The Entire History of You”, which is the third episode of the first season, followed by “Fifteen Million Merits” (the second episode of the same season).

We discussed both episodes. And we decided to do a post on the latter. Therefore, this complete post was a result of the exchanges of points of views. But each one of us focused on particular themes.

cb1 Christy Birmingham

Christy wrote…

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A short story from ninety-eight years ago…

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Have We Had Help?

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The war had dragged on for four years, neither side seemingly gaining any advantage. To the rear of the frontlines, generals sat in comfort looking at a map, moving markers around hoping to gain an advantage over the enemy. None of them for one moment considered those markers represented living breathing human beings.

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Paul sat on the firing step with his back to the trench wall. His rifle lay propped up beside him as he reached inside his tunic for pencil and paper.

Dear Franz,

                    You and I are the only ones left from the class of 1912. Remember Opellman? He died this morning at dawn when we went over the top, shot through the head. At least it was quick. I doubt he felt anything.

Gruber was eventually found a week ago by the military police. Poor Gruber, he’d had enough. All he wanted to do was…

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“If a crocodile has sex with her…” Lecture by Dr Luigi Prada, 13/1/17

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Egypt at the Manchester Museum

To close our season of events in conjunction with the touring exhibition, ‘Gifts for the Gods: Animal Mummies Revealed’:

rylands-croc-imageIf a crocodile has sex with her…”: Animals between magic, religion, and divination in Graeco-Roman Egypt.

Dr Luigi Prada, University of Oxford

2pm, Friday 13th January, Collections Study Centre, Manchester Museum

Book here

Animals played a huge role not only in the practical daily life of the ancient Egyptians, but also in their intellectual and spiritual life, especially in the Graeco-Roman Period.

Whilst we may be familiar with their overall role in Egyptian cults, there are aspects which remain often unknown outside the specialists’ circle–such as, for instance, the fact that sacred animals typically carried personal names (very much like our pets), that archaeological excavations revealed the existence of animal nurseries in Egyptian temples where, for instance, thousands of crocodile eggs were looked after to hatch, and many more such…

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